Tag Archive | Chaucer

A consideration of Spenser’s framing of his continuation of Chaucer’s Squire’s Tale.

This blog will investigate ideas surrounding what extent Chaucer can be considered a legitimate inspiration for Spenser in his desire to complete The Squire’s Tale, or whether we must consider the poetic authority of Chaucer to be a burden that Spenser must overcome and efface in his transformative supplement to the original tale. I will look at the idea of authorship and authorial identity and whether one must sacrifice one’s own identity when interpreting another source, or whether it is possible to change it in such a way it becomes unique but still retains some of its former roots. Spenser’s continuation of The Squire’s Tale raises many questions about his relationship to, and imitation of Chaucer.

Page from The Canterbury Tales by Geoffrey Chaucer

Spenser uses the term “’Dan’ an archaic title of respect derived from Latin dominus [which] is otherwise used by Spenser only of classical gods and heros” (Hamilton, The Spenser Encyclopedia, 144). By using this title specifically in such an obvious reference to Chaucer it could be interpreted that he is making a sardonic joke about the idea of Chaucer being in the same league as the gods, unattainable in stature and accessibility.It could also be interpreted that Spenser may have indeed considered Chaucer an inspiration at the time but as Craig A. Berry mentions; “for Spenser, the well of English may be undefiled, but it needs filtering before it is served to a sixteenth-century audience.”(116) Berry had previously discussed how the Elizabethans viewed the Middle Ages with a paradoxical nature (107) and how “even the greatest English poets” were considered “barbarous and rude Ryming”. (108)

It is possible that Spenser truly did believe that “Of thine owne spirit, which doth in me survive” (IV.ii.34. 7). But, due to the general distaste for Chaucer, he decided to refine and adapt Chaucer’s meaning to suit his own style and the societal demands that he faced. This can be observed in Spenser’s complete avoidance of Cambalo and Canacee’s incestuous relationship. He decides that Cambalo “That faught in lystes with the bretheren two / For Canacee er that he myght hire wynne.” (Chaucer, The Riverside Chaucer, 177) will fight instead for a suitor for his sister thus removing any incest from the story. A. Kent Hieatt reaffirms this point when he says that Spenser “turns Chaucer’s original into a more obvious member of a more structured Marriage Group” (158).

Spenser may have chosen The Squire’s Tale not just because it was left unfinished but due to the character of the Squire himself. Spenser may have interpreted the Franklin’s praise of the Squire, when he interrupts his tale, as a false compliment or ironic. This is how he may have viewed the response to his own work. The Squire’s anger at King Cambyuskan’s courtiers’ inability to decipher the magic horse in Chaucer’s The Squire’s Tale may have echoed Spenser’s own constant fear of being misunderstood.

Portrait of Chaucer

“Of sondry doubts thus they jangle and trete, / As lewed peple demeth comunly / Of thynges that been maad moore subtilly / than they kan in hir lewednesse comprehende” (Chaucer, The Riverside Chaucer, 171)

Finally, the Squire’s burden of having to impress people in the presence of his father who largely outranked and overshadowed him by being a knight as well as his elder and the fear and pressure of potential failure may have resonated with Spenser in his attempt to “follow here the footing of thy feete, / That with thy meaning so I may the rather meete.” (FQ IV.ii.34.8-9)

It is more than likely that readers of Spenser in the sixteenth century would have been well educated and familiar with Chaucer and would have picked up on Spenser’s subtle and obvious references to him. In one sense it could be argued that Spenser attempted to manage his audience’s response to his adaption of The Squire’s Tale by not only making it more socially acceptable and attempting to turn it into an epic but also by his detailed completion of it; leaving no room for question or misinterpretation, unlike Chaucer. However Berry argues that;  “A poem that represents its author as reading his sources in the same figures that represent it readers reading – or failing to read – the poem itself becomes an arena where the past-orientated concerns of intertextuality meet the present-orientated concerns of contemporary reception” (107). This reiterates the perception of the end of the Chaucerian era and his incompatibility with the fashion of literature in the sixteenth century.

Richard Helgerson argues in Self Crowned Laureates that Spenser distinguished himself as a Laureate by publicly abandoning “all social identity except that conferred by his elected vocation” (63). It can be argued that by losing his identity to his work, he truly did embrace Chaucer’s essence and, in doing so, used him as a legitimate inspiration to create his transformative supplement to the original Squire’s Tale. It is arguable though that Spenser placed himself in Book IV more than in any other book. Not only did he change his style of narration but he made it more personal in the time between the release of the first three books in 1590 and the subsequent others in 1596. His narrator also out-rightly disturbs the story to tell us of Chaucer’s greatness; this narrative interjection a classic element of Chaucer’s own narrative style. “Again the reel has stopped, the major characters have frozen, and then the poet steps forward” (Anderson, The Growth of a Personal Voice,118). This style of Chaucer is exceptionally relevant in The Squire’s Tale as the text is primarily concerned with how to tell the story rather than the storyline itself. The narrator’s voice is consistent and dominates the tale up until the Falcon begins to speak: there is almost no direct speech throughout the tale (Cooper, Oxford Guide to Chaucer, 227).

Hamilton mentions that no writer in the Elizabethan period demonstrates a kinship to Chaucer the way that Spenser does. The epitaph on Spenser’s tomb reportedly says “’Hic prope Chaucerum situs est Spenserius, illi / Proximus ingenio, proximus ut tumulo’ (‘Here buried next to Chaucer, lies Spenser, close to him in wit, and as close in his tomb’)” (Hamilton, 144).   In short, Chaucer can be considered a legitimate inspiration for Spenser in his desire to complete The Squire’s Tale, but this did not come without the occasional burden.

Works Cited

Anderson, Judith H. The Growth of a Personal Voice. London: Yale University Press, 1976. Print.

Berry, Craig A. ‘“Sundrie Doubts” Vulnerable Understanding and Dubious Origins in Spenser’s Continuation of the Squire’s Tale”: Refiguring Chaucer in the Renaissance. Ed. Theresa M. Krier. Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 1998. Print. (106-127)

Chaucer, Geoffrey. The Riverside Chaucer. Ed. Larry D. Benson. Oxford. Oxford University Press, 1987. Print.

Cooper, Helen. The Oxford Guide to the Canterbury Tales. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 1989. Print.

Hamilton, A.C. The Spenser Encyclopedia. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1990.

Helgerson, Richard. Self-Crowned Laureates. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1983. Print.  

Hieatt, A. Kent. “Room of One’s Own for Decisions: Chaucer and the Faerie Queene”. Refiguring Chaucer in the Renaissance. Ed Theresa M. Krier. Gainesville, University Press of Florida. 1998. Print. (147-164)

Spenser, Edmund. The Faerie Queene. Ed A.C Hamilton. Harlow, Pearson Longman.2001. Print.

 Images Cited

British Library. Portrait of ChaucerA photographic reproduction of a manuscript illumination. 2014. Portrait and Life of ChaucerWikimedia Commons. Web. 18 Jan. 2014.

Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library. Page from “The Canterbury Tales. A photographic reproduction of a manuscript illumination. 2011. The Canterbury Tales. Wikimedia Commons. Web. 18 Jan 2014


Sitting in the shadows of week one it is safe to say that the world of academia that I knew in my undergraduate has truly evolved. It has passed through the tunnel of adolescence and emerged a mature, thoughtful and reflective being. It no longer ignores recommended reading or jests at active participation. In actuality, it is beginning to enjoy both.

It is so easy to become lost in the academic world. On the one hand, we are fortunate enough that we have an immense array of options when it comes to pursuing an academic course. While on the other hand, frequently as adolescents we are not guided correctly with regard to this path. In this financial climate there is too often the notion of studying something that will guarantee you a job rather than something that will enrich your mind and benefit you as a person.

While reading Chaucer’s Troilus and Criseyde this week I began to wonder about the adversity poets, authors or philosophers may have faced in that era, or even the adversity their characters may have faced. I find it difficult to imagine that someone would tell Chaucer that he was foolish to write, that he should go and get a “proper” job. The Arts were given a certain precedence and reverence and those who studied them were considered very fortunate. Chaucer, Dante and Spenser are all men who helped create and shape the English language as we know it, what would the English language be today had they chosen to become lawyers or doctors?

Through the vast time and space between now and then our thought processes regarding the Arts are dramatically different. A career as a poet is considered conventionally as impractical and foolish. Scholars are considered pompous and arrogant and young children who prefer reading books instead of sitting in front of a technicolor box are ridiculed by their peers.

The study of the English language, particularly historical stories, poets and figures such as those mentioned above is as important as studying the historical facts of the environment they lived in. It teaches us about their interests, beliefs and emotions. As I sit here, typing these words into my laptop I often envisage that time; someone soaking vellum in lime in order to prepare it for manuscript, or a monk spending endless hours creating the beautiful pieces of art that we are fortunate enough to have remnants of today. It is impossible to move forward in life without acknowledging the past. Every symbol and syllable we utilize is a result of centuries of evolution and growth. We only exist as we are, as a direct result of what has gone before us.

I leave you with the pertinent words of Marcus Garvey, renowned Jamaican political leader, entrepreneur, publisher and journalist.

“A people without the knowledge of their past history, origin and culture is like a tree without roots” 

Tree Roots in France


Images Cited

Yale University Art Gallery. Saint-Cloud. Photography. 1924. Eugene Atget. Wikimedia Commons. Web. 29 Sept. 2013